Urban Aboriginal Round Tables: Community engagement from an Indigenous perspective

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By Cities for People / We Are Cities’ Urban Aboriginal Convenor - Ted Norris

The role of Urban Aboriginal Convenor for the We Are Cities national movement has enabled me to continue the work that I have been doing for many years – and that is to connect people and ideas through a common vision. Although there were distinct differences among the participating cities, each round table host and every single one of the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants approached their engagement “in a good way and with a good mind and heart” as many Elders will proclaim during ceremony.

The tone of the four Urban Aboriginal round tables was one of overall optimism despite some thorny challenges and complex barriers that continue to hamper many Aboriginal people. Laughter and good natured teasing is an integral part of any gathering of Aboriginal people – whether sitting around a camp fire, celebrating family milestones or participating in talking circles.

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We Are Cities Roundtable in Ottawa (Photo: Leah Snyder)

The overarching theme of these round tables was, not surprisingly, community engagement from an Indigenous lens. I want to delve into more detail about what this really means to the almost 60% of First Nation, Métis and Inuit who now live in urban areas.

First, a quick overview of some stats*:

  • The Aboriginal population was 1,400,685 in 2011, up from 1,172,790 in 2006 making it the fastest-growing segment of the Canadian population.
  • Amongst the Aboriginal population, 46% of individuals are under age 25, compared to 29% for the rest of the Canadian population.
  • Aboriginal peoples represent 2.8% of the Canadian population, but account for 18% of the federally incarcerated population**.

In 2017 the life expectancy for the total Canadian population is projected to be 79 years for men and 83 years for women. Among the Aboriginal population the Inuit have the lowest projected life expectancy in 2017, of 64 years for men and 73 years for women. The Métis and First Nations populations have similar life expectancies, at 73-74 years for men and 78-80 years for women.

*All stats from Statistics Canada
**From Correctional Services Canada

The “Idle No More” movement, the tragedy of missing and murdered Indigenous women (see the Native Women’s Association of Canada), First Nations education on & off reserve, and the findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), are a few recent and important examples that have focused country-wide attention on Aboriginal issues as never before. But, as indicated earlier, it is not all dire news.

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Sisters In Spirit silent march for missing and murdered aboriginal women in Whitehorse, YKT (Photo: Yukon News)

“My people will sleep for one hundred years, but when they awake, it will be the artists who give them their spirit back.” Louis Riel – July 4, 1885

We have a burgeoning arts and culture scene – Indigenous writing, theatre, music, film and visual arts – being produced and recognized nationally and internationally. Aboriginal people are participating in local, regional and national politics in record numbers – and successfully advocating for change from within established European-based governance models. Our Aboriginal business leaders embody an entrepreneurial spirit that is countless generations old.

There is reason for optimism and this positive attitude came out loud and clear in the We Are Cities urban Aboriginal round tables. For the most part, urban Aboriginal people have very similar concerns and needs as their non-Aboriginal neighbours – safe streets, access to efficient transportation choices and affordable housing options.

Some unique aspects of the urban Aboriginal round table discussions in Ottawa and Vancouver, for example, were around the recognition of sacred and cultural spaces in the urban environment. In the National Capital Region,    is situated in the Ottawa River between Gatineau and Ottawa and is an historical meeting and trading place for the Algonquin peoples of Ontario and Quebec. Efforts are underway to preserve the integrity of the space for future generations, despite pressures from real estate developers (you can read about ongoing discussions about development plans for Victoria Island, and criticisms that have arisen from both First Nations and non-First Nations communities, here, here, and here).

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Victoria Island on the Ottawa River, Traditional Algonquin Territory (Photo: Rob Huntley)

In Vancouver, the Salish Sea Village concept is being touted as a potential model for other developments across the country that wish to celebrate the historical past and the current contributions of Indigenous peoples. Education and awareness are key to cement an on-going connectedness between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal interests. Efforts to bridge cultural divides will have long term, lasting benefits on all sides.

The important role of Elders and other traditional knowledge keepers was highlighted in Brandon, MB, as well as the other round tables. An Elders Council at City Hall would go a long way toward increased understanding and acceptance of First Nation, Métis and Inuit cultures and traditions. The spiritual element also includes the need for traditional ceremony and this was discussed at length at the Brandon University round table. Participants want to see more tolerance towards smudging in hospitals, schools and other public buildings for ceremonial purposes.

Recently at a youth event in a Thunder Bay hotel, I was met with an incredulous “of course” when I inquired about the possibility of our elder burning sweetgrass and tobacco in the meeting room for a traditional smudging / cleansing ceremony. It is all about attitude, and a relaxing of non-smoking restrictions for certain ceremonial occasions.

Youth leadership was high on the list of discussions at the Winnipeg round table hosted by the Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre. As posted by Ma Mawi,

“The round table provided youth with an opportunity to share their dreams for the future of Winnipeg and first steps towards this dream.”

It was gratifying to see, just within the relatively short time period of the round table session, a growing self-confidence from some of the youth who have already gone on to actively develop their leadership skills. There is no limit to what these youth can do! But, as they themselves spoke about, they require the educational supports, safe streets, increased sports and cultural opportunities and an end to poverty to help make their dreams a reality.

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We Are Cities roundtable participants at the Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre in Winnipeg (Photo: Adesuwa Ero)

We are fortunate in Canada to have a number of existing program and institutional supports for the urban Aboriginal population. One of the prime examples is the National Aboriginal Friendship Centre movement (NAFC) which boasts 118 friendship centres across the country. The First Nations University in Regina and the Gabriel Dumont Institute are just two of a number of outstanding post-secondary educational institutions. Small and large businesses have a solid network through the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business (CCAB). Their model is bolstered by the efforts of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy partners.

The urban Aboriginal landscape is vast. The voices of Inuit, Métis and First Nations will be key in developing an Urban Agenda that truly works for all citizens. To that end, a coalition of like-minded partners should be convened and encouraged to continue the momentum started by the We Are Cities initiative.

Note: You can read more from Ted Norris on the We Are Cities website, where he shared thoughts on using cultural practices creatively to adapt the We Are Cities toolkit to generate new ideas.

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Thinking Hats at the We Are Cities Roundtable in Ottawa (Photo: Ted Norris)

Introducing cheyanne turions, writing on art & society

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by cheyanne turions

I am cheyanne. Today I write from the land of the Mississaugas of New Credit, though this land has been called home for more than 10 000 years by many people including the Wyandot and Haudenosaunee. Today I write in Toronto, a placed named with an Haudenosaunee word, a place where trees are in the water. I am not from here though; I am a visitor like many others. To begin, I am found here by way of the farmlands of Treaty 8. The place where I was born, colloquially referred to as “Northern Alberta,” is actually closer to the geographic centre of the province, but our population is bottom heavy in this country; it is not so northern at all. I was born in the municipal district of Big Lakes, and on my way to these shores of the Great Lakes where I find myself now, I lived in the West, near the ocean. As a regular practice, I swim for the physical movement and the mental stillness of it. Turns out there’s something about water in the threads of my living.

In school, I was always fascinated by the ideas of science but never any good at math. So, instead of becoming a physicist, I studied philosophy. I paid particular attention to the philosophy of science, considering the implications of whether science is actually indicative of reality (realism) or merely a useful tool we use to navigate a reality that remains fundamentally unknowable (anti-realism). Somehow this has culminated in a writing and curatorial practice where I use the structures of philosophy in the contextualization of artistic practices.

While philosophy and art are mutually supportive disciplines, they depart in the impetus of their inquiry. Where philosophy seeks to understand what is, art is oftentimes concerned with what could be. Approaching resilience theory through art will allow for imagination to shape understanding because the making of art is not just of things, but the making of relationships between desire and the real. What makes a city “for people”? How can we get there?

There are probably countless proposals for the first question, and a correspondingly infinite set of possibilities for the latter. Here’s just one specific example: I believe that a city is “for people” to the extent that the practices of industry and the habits of the populace compliment each other in ensuring access to drinkable, fishable, swimmable water.[1] In contemplating ways to make these responsibilities manifest, one could sit with the recently published artists’  book The Lake  (2014).[2] Collected, commissioned and arranged by Maggie Groat, an artist based in St. Catherines, Ontario, the works therein offer disparate encounters with an environmental being. The lake, as any and all lakes, is approached as a sacred site, a living connection to our collective history, a place of environmental change and concern, a place of transportation and industry, a place of recreation, a natural resource, and a site of possibility. This publication is an exhibition of these findings, not always scientific but drawn explicitly from the feel and the touch of contact with natural phenomena older, larger and wiser than us. As an alternative body of research, it provokes us, its readers, to take stock of our own relationship to water—I suspect there are threads of water running through your living too—and from there much is possible.

[1] I recently encountered this tripartite proposal of what is possible for freshwater bodies by way of Mark Mattson’s presentation at The Walrus Talks: Water, held in Toronto on 28 May 2014.

[2] Full disclosure: I was part of this project, contributing copy (some of which is re-published here) and performing copy-editing duties.